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scientific edition of Bauman MSTU

SCIENCE & EDUCATION

Bauman Moscow State Technical University.   El № FS 77 - 48211.   ISSN 1994-0408

# 06, June 2014

Machine Building and Engineering Science

Investigation of Copper Vapor Pulsed Laser with Industrial Active Elements of “Kulon” Series using One Convex Mirror Mode and Its Capabilities for Technological Applications
# 06, June 2014
DOI: 10.7463/0614.0717060
N.A. Lyabin
Spatial, time and energy characteristics of a copper vapor laser (CVL|) have been investigated in the one convex mirror mode using the most powerful industrial sealed-off active elements (AE) of “Kulon” series: 15 W GL-206D model and 20 W GL-206I one; the laser capabilities for microprocessing of materials are defined. The main advantage of one mirror mode is that one high quality beam with a high stability of directivity pattern axis is formed in CVL thereby increasing the quality of microprocessing.At small radii of mirror curvature (R = 6-30 mm) the CVL output radiation beam divergence can differ from diffraction limit only by 2-3 times (0.15-0.35 mrad), and a peak power density in a focused spot can reach 109…1010 W/cm2 values. The use of CVL with one mirror as a driving oscillator (DO) in a copper vapor laser system (CVLS) of the type: driving oscillator – spatial filter- collimator – power amplifier (DO – SFC – PA) using 30-50 W industrial “Crystal” AEs in PAs allows to increase peak power density up to 1011 W/cm2, sufficient for efficient and qualitative microprocessing of materials up to 1 mm thick.
Using the Regularities of High and Critical Technologies Developing in Innovative Project Management
# 06, June 2014
DOI: 10.7463/0614.0713699
S.G. Selivanov, S.V. Poezjalova, A.F. Shayhulova
Using empirical and statistic data, the paper considers regularities for developing and implementing the high and critical technologies in innovative projects management. Obtained mathematical models allow justification of technique to use CASSR (computer-aided systems of scientific research) of high and critical technologies and CASPE (computer-aided systems of production engineering) thereby continuously managing the innovative project. This technique is to increase an efficiency of innovative project management for a long-term period provided that computer-aided (automated) systems are used at all stages.

Constructional Material Processing in Machine Building

Parameterization of Mechanical Process Operations Taking into Consideration a Coefficient of Variation and Tool Life
# 06, June 2014
DOI: 10.7463/0614.0714287
A.S. Sgibnev, P.V. Kruglov
This article describes the results of studies on methods for increasing the reliability of  mechanical process operations of hard-to-machine materials . Technological system is treated as a combination of factors affecting the treatment process. The article estimates an impact of factors such as a choice of the tool material, applied technology environment, processing modes on the reliability of technological operations. For different workpiece materials ( steel and corrosion resistant alloys, tungsten, etc. ) it describes the conditions under which tool life increases and a coefficient of variation reduces.
Self-Healing Structural Properties of Thermoplastics in HF Field
# 06, June 2014
DOI: 10.7463/0614.0713624
N.G. Filippenko
The last decades are characterized by growing production of polymer materials and using their products in all industries. Despite the declared warranty service, a number of products from polyamide materials are rejected in the course of their operation before a baseline period normalized by the manufacturer expires. Therefore, one of the possible ways for safe operation of polymer products is their self-healing. This is especially true for products from polymer materials exploited in hard-to-reach areas and machine and mechanism units. In this regard, the aim of this study was to develop an algorithm that enables the self-regeneration of the mechanical properties of polymer materials. To achieve this goal, the authors identified the following problems: defining the methods to provide self-healing of polymer materials, reasoning the possibility to detect damage in products from polymer materials, creating the algorithm to form a signal initiating the recovery process, defining the efficiency to regenerate the material. The paper discusses the problems of determining the conditions for the self-healing of polymer material structure. For finding the ways to determine the fatigue failures, methods of their determination proposed and developed by authors are used taking into account the real-meteorological and climatic operation conditions by the example of the products of the rolling stock of Russian Railways JSC. Using the samples of glass-nylon composite the necessary and sufficient indicators to determine the strength characteristics of the studied materials are found. The algorithm of self-healing is developed and experimental ratios to characterize a recovery of polymer materials are obtained.
High-Frequency Electro-Thermal Processing of Secondary Non-Metallic Raw Materials
# 06, June 2014
DOI: 10.7463/0614.0712029
A.V. Livshits, N.G. Filippenko, A.N. Larchenko, S.N. Filatova
The article aims to give a physical representation of the electro-thermal equipment operation to enhance its application capabilities in recycling the secondary raw material and describes a number of electrothermics technology applications in this area. The article presents a comparative analysis of the results of the high-frequency and microwave heating. As an example of wastes recycling of the forestry and woodworking industry, is shown an efficient use of high-frequency equipment in the technological processes of drying. The article offers the technological tooling developed by authors for forming the fuel briquettes. This technological equipment allows the use of thermo-mechanical method of their drying. The article describes experimental research results of waste processing of oil-petrol-resistant flexible PVC, cooking fuel briquettes, and facing materials from sawdust, which use a modifying additive as a crumb from the polyethylene waste, thereby increasing the durability of fuel briquettes, warmth, and stability of its combustion. Results of done work have shown the prospects for using the RF power to process the wastes of wood, plastic, and oil-petrol-resistant PVC.

Power Machine Building, Metallurgical Machine Building and Chemical Engineering

Spanwise Distribution of Energy Losses in Steam Turbine Last Stage Nozzle
# 06, June 2014
DOI: 10.7463/0614.0712815
A.M. Tyukhtyaev, A.S. Laskin, A.V. Zakharov
Gas-dynamic calculations of the last LPC stage of powerful steam turbine are performed with two alternative shapes of last stage nozzle using the Numeca Fine Turbo software. To compare a nozzle with combined lean (option B) to that of with straight trailing edge (option A) the article offers the method for calculating a distribution of kinetic energy losses in last stage nozzle using the Numeca CFView software package. The method is based on the calculation of loss coefficients for the single streamlines in the meridional plane. The difference between the local coefficients of kinetic energy losses calculated by the proposed method from the experimental results was 0.5 %. The use of the combined lean (option B) led to a change in the distribution of mass flow rate, pressure gradient, and steam flow rotation angles and tilt adjustment in height in the test section, which follows the last stage nozzle. As compared to the option A, for the option B in the zone a reactivity has increased by 20%, the Mach number has decreased from 1.4 to 1.2, a level of kinetic energy losses for the option B was 5.2 % that is lower than for the option A by 1.6% with the same consumption of steam flow. The greatest local decrease of kinetic energy losses for the option B was 2.5 % as compared to the option A due to decreasing intensity of the secondary flows in the shroud region. A relative efficiency of the stage with the guide (nozzle) apparatus B has increased by 1.75 % as compared to the initial option A owing to reducing losses of kinetic energy in the guide apparatus and changing conditions of the flow at the inlet of the bucket.

Transportation, Mining and Construction Machine Building

Development of Commercial Hybrid Electric Vehicle with Native Key Components
# 06, June 2014
DOI: 10.7463/0614.0715911
S.V. Bakhmutov, A.I. Filonov, I.A. Kulikov
Nowadays, good distribution of electric vehicles and hybrid electric ones is reached. The article describes the prospects of development of medium cargo urban vehicles with hybrid powertrains using components manufactured in Russia. It also describes the advantages and disadvantages of the chosen scheme of powertrain. This requires good analysis and depends on type of the vehicle and key component features. The need to apply the test benches for experimental studies is justified. Also the aim of this article is to study a reasonability of key components manufactured in Russia. The authors describe the construction of an experimental vehicle with a hybrid powertrain. They also developed an algorithm of the vehicle operation with a hybrid powertrain during its movement in the urban cycle, which takes in the drive into account a power balance.
Can a Gearbox Be of Use in an Electric Vehicle?
# 06, June 2014
DOI: 10.7463/0614.0715866
E.E. Baulina, A.V. Krutashov, V.V. Serebryakov
The article conducts a reasoning analysis for using a gearbox in electric motor vehicles, in particular in vehicles with hybrid powertrain. It presents external high-speed characteristics of internal combustion (IC) engines in vehicles with hybrid powertrain engines and electric motors that can be set in vehicles with hybrid powertrain, which are used to compare characteristics of horsepower balance and accelerations of these vehicles both with IC engine and gearbox and with electric motor. To prove the need of a gearbox application, both in the electric vehicle, and in the in vehicle with hybrid powertrain, comparative diagrams of accelerations and power balance of the vehicle with electric motor without a gearbox and with electric motor in combination with the 2-, 3-, 4-staged gearboxes are provided.

Mathematics and Mathematical Modeling

Hooke–Jeeves Method-used Local Search in a Hybrid Global Optimization Algorithm
# 06, June 2014
DOI: 10.7463/0614.0716155
V.D. Sulimov, P.M. Shkapov, S.K. Nosachev
Modern methods for optimization investigation of complex systems are based on development and updating the systems’ mathematical models in connection with solving the corresponding inverse problems. The optimization approach is one of the main approaches to solving the inverse problems. In the main case it is necessary to find a global extremum of not everywhere differentiable criterion function. When the number of variables is large they use the stochastic global optimization algorithms. As stochastic algorithms yield too expensive solutions, so this drawback restricts their applications. Developing hybrid algorithms that combine a stochastic algorithm for scanning the variable space with deterministic local search method is a promising way. A new hybrid algorithm that integrates a multiple Metropolis algorithm and the Hooke–Jeeves method for the local search is proposed. Some results on solving the global optimization benchmark are presented.
Software Package Nesvetay-3D for Modeling Three-Dimensional Flows of Monatomic Rarefied Gas
# 06, June 2014
DOI: 10.7463/0614.0712314
V.A. Titarev
The paper contains a review of the recent developments of a three-dimensional computational code "Nesvetay-3D" for modelling rarefied gas flows. The code solves the Boltzmann kinetic equation with various model collision integrals using an implicit finite-volume scheme of Godunov type.  Arbitraryunstructured spatial meshes can be used so that flows over arbitrary geometrical shapes can be computed, including those of. Large-scale computations can be run on hundreds of CPU cores using MPI. Performance and robustness of the numerical scheme and computer code are demonstrated on a number of examples, including gas flows into vacuum through micropipes and external flows over re-entry craftsat high altitude.

Aeronautical and Rocket Space Engineering

Mathematical Modeling of Working Processes in Afterburner Ramjet on Pyrotechnic Composition
# 06, June 2014
DOI: 10.7463/0614.0713972
V.A. Sorokin, D.M. Yagodnikov, I.I. Khomajakov, S.A. Suchkov, A.V. Sukhov
Application of metal additives to fuels and to pyrotechnic structures (PS) allows us to improve power characteristics both of traditional ramjet (RJ) schemes, and of combined RJ and to realize performance limits for high-metallized PS. It is obvious that advanced designs of RJ using the PS are characterized by a broad range of changing operation conditions such as pressure, ratios of components, structure and quantity of the condensed phase of PS combustion products. Their influence on the main characteristics of the workflow ought to be known to use advantages of the metal-containing combustible as much as possible
Application of Micro-Arc Oxidation Methods in Making the Structure Elements of Spacecraft
# 06, June 2014
DOI: 10.7463/0614.0712840
V.K. Shatalov, A.O. Shtokal, E.V. Rykov, K.B. Dobrosovestnov
The paper emphasizes that owing to micro-arc oxidation coating the performances of spacecraft units from aluminium can be significantly expanded. The properties of micro-arc oxide coatings, which may be achieved by using the cutting-edge covering technologies, are given. The comparative mass reduction as a result of the replacement of greater density metals for the aluminium alloys after the micro-arc oxidation is calculated by example of a typical unit of the spacecraft. The paper offers optimal methods for the micro-arc oxidation of different configurations parts of aluminium alloys.

Instrument Engineering, Metrology and Information-Measuring Devices and Systems

Magnetoelastic Generator Type Transducer
# 06, June 2014
DOI: 10.7463/0614.0716613
A.K. Efremov
Generator type magnetoelastic transducers are considered as fuze contact target sensors and as means of dynamic force measuring. It is shown that the transducer may have a nontraditional scheme containing only one output coil which is capable of integrating the input force signal. The generating effect in magnetically soft materials is characterized by “piezomagnetodynamic” hysteresis curves as a result of shock loading of the magnetic conductor. The results of experimental evaluation of the dynamic force function of contact target sensor are presented. The magnetoelastic transducer may also be used for the evaluation of bullet-proof vest efficiency.
Features of TV-Imaging with Limited Photon Flux
# 06, June 2014
DOI: 10.7463/0614.0716587
S.A. Kaznacheev
The paper demonstrates the characteristic features of images registered at quite low fluxes of optical radiation, in which each element (pixel) of the photosensitive matrix has one photon in average. It also considers noise characteristics of the image detector of the newest type i.e. CCD with internal electronic multiplication (Electron Multiplying CCD, EMCCD). It is shown that the internal electron multiplication can significantly improve the signal-to- noise ratio of CCD detector and approach to the theoretical limit of sensitivity, limited by photon noise.Based on the EMCCD sensor TV device has been designed and created. It enables a record of images at ultra-low light levels of the order of 10e-4 lx.
Estimating a Wind Shear Detection Range for Different Altitude Levels in the Troposphere
# 06, June 2014
DOI: 10.7463/0614.0715345
V.A. Gorodnichev, M.L. Belov, S.E. Ivanov, P.A. Filimonov, A.V. Kuvshinov
The paper presents estimation of a sounding range of the airborne lidar in ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared spectral bands to solve a problem of wind shear detection for different altitude levels in the troposphere. It is shown that with the flying altitude rise there is a decrease of the sounding range, most of all, within the altitude of 5-10 km. This dependence is explained by the fact that in this range of altitudes there is a substantial decrease of aerosol scattering and extinction coefficients in the earth atmosphere with the increase of altitude. In  the lowest atmospheric layer the sounding range reaches maximum for  the wavelengths of 0.532 µm. With increase of flying altitude a difference between the sounding ranges for the wavelengths of 0.355, 9.532, and 1.54 µm decreases.
Periodical Getter Cleaning of the Gas Environment Inside a Device
# 06, June 2014
DOI: 10.7463/0614.0715485
V.A. Matveev, M.A. Basarab, B.S. Lunin, R.A. Zakharyan, E.A. Chumankin
Application of adhesives and sealants in assembly technology of modern vacuum electro-mechanical devices allows connecting parts of different materials and significantly reduces the cost of products. However, outgassing of the adhesive joints deteriorates the vacuum inside the devices and limits their service life. Prolonged vacuum outgassing adhesive joints at elevated temperatures solves this problem but labor intensity of this operation prevents its use in mass production. For devices which are switched on relatively rare or once the desired vacuum level can be achieved by switching the getter directly before use. A short-time heating of the getter removes the main residual gas component - the hydrocarbons from the inner atmosphere of a vacuum device and provide the its functionality for a long time interval. An additional internal outgassing adhesive joints in the process of manufacturing the device is not required.
Study of Efficiency and Optimization Parameters of Laser Device for Measuring the Range Rate of a Spacecraft
# 06, June 2014
DOI: 10.7463/0614.0712240
E.I. Starovoitov, N.E. Zubov, V.V. Ivashov, A.V. Nikulchin
The article presents a developed laser rangefinder-speedometer (LRS) to replace the hand-held laser rangefinders on board transport spacecraft. Using the generalized function of efficiency, the LRFSM characteristics were estimated to show that the LRS has the highest efficiency as compared with existing analogues. As a result of relationship analysis of measuring speed accuracy and reliability of LRS laser source, Pareto sets are obtained, which enable providing the optimal operation conditions of a device. Energy calculations are performed for 5 km range measurements on space complex with a complicated configuration such as the International Space Station. The article considers the use of a geometric factor to protect a photo-detector from the overload when receiving a signal from the nearby angular reflector. The paper presents the results of efficiency evaluation using a generalized function for different types of laser sources that can be used in the LRS.

Radio Engineering and Communication

Remote Identification of the Vibration Amplitude of Ship Hull
# 06, June 2014
DOI: 10.7463/0614.0715325
A.N. Pinchuk
The paper proposes a development of the methodological support to determine vibration amplitude of the ship hull remotely using a coherent radar centimeter range on the variation of the Doppler signal spectrum reflected from a vibrating surface.It is proved that the level ratio of the spectral density at the frequency of vibration and at the frequencies of its multiples are determined by a single parameter – the phase modulation index, which is linearly related to the amplitude of vibration. As a result of field experiments it has been established that the energy of the surface gravity – capillary waves range has a high correlation with the wind speed. The paper shows a method of restrictions due to interference caused by the scattering a radio signal from the water surface.

Mechanics

Regression Analysis Application for Designing the Vibration Dampers
# 06, June 2014
DOI: 10.7463/0614.0715236
A.V. Ivanov
The article proposes a direct method for designing the Stockbridge dampers. The method allows determination of damper element dimensions using the arbitrary natural frequencies randomly specified by a designer. Relation between the input and output design parameters is defined by a regression equation obtained as a result of regression analysis. The mathematical model makes it possible to solve various design problems, including extreme tasks with conflicting requirements for design parameters. This method allows a selection of the optimal solution from a set of results, and at the initial stage of the analysis an identification of problems with no solutions.
Сomputational and Experimental Researches of Ice Pieces Impact Against a Plate-Imitator of a Blade Airfoil of an Aircraft Engine Axial Compressor
# 06, June 2014
DOI: 10.7463/0614.0716936
B.F. Shorr, V.S. Matsarenko
The calculation-based modeling results of the impact of ice bricks, which can be formed on the components of the engine air inlet, against the pointed edge of the plate target imitating a leading edge of the compressor blade are compared with test results of a pneumatic gun firing by ice plates. Experiments and calculations were carried out at various angles between the direction of flying ice and the plate target plane. Two models of ice "fragile" and "plastic" were used with different size of the yield point of material. Calculated destruction of fragile ice was in closer consent with that observed in experiment. Calculated damages of the plate in the form of edge bending well correspond to the damages received during experiment. The obtained results give the grounds to use a calculation-based modeling to analyze consequences of ice pieces hitting the inlet components of aviation engine.
About the Walking Machine Motion Stability
# 06, June 2014
DOI: 10.7463/0614.0712266
V.V. Lapshin
The article discusses some problems concerning the functional safety of statically stable multi-legged walking machines associated with the possible loss of motion stability. When a waking machine works in dangerous situations it is suggested to use a special cautious (safe) gait that will allow the machine to remain statically stable in case of its sudden loosing a support to one of the legs. It is also proposed to reconsider a general definition of the static stability margin of walking machine to have a numeric characteristic that allows not only answer the question on the static stability (instability) of a walking machine, but also obtain an adequate estimation of the machine concerning its overturning possibility.

Radiophysics

Simulation of Recording the Microwave Holograms of Complex Objects by the Near Range Radars
# 06, June 2014
DOI: 10.7463/0614.0712294
V.V. Razevig
This investigation goal is to develop a computer simulation method to record the microwave holograms of complex objects by the near range radars. The surface of the created object is described by a set of triangular facets. While calculating the reflected field, representation of the object as a set of point reflectors is used. Thus, the model of unitary dispersion is used, which does not consider re-reflection and cross influence of reflectors. Methods for forming a focused image of the object reflectivity function from microwave hologram are described. The model can be used at the early designing stages of the near range radars.

Power Engineering

Cold Power Plant Based on the Cryogenic Refueling Tank
# 06, June 2014
DOI: 10.7463/0614.0716978
A.I. Dovgjallo, D.A. Uglanov, A.B. Tsapkova, A.A. Shimanov
The paper evaluates the possibility to use a tank with cryogenic refueling as a part of the autonomous complex employing the liquefied natural gas. A cryogenic refueling tank-based installation to utilize a low-grade heat has been designed. During its use extra electric power is generated. To assess a performance capability, the proposed installation calculations have been made for different end pressures in cryogenic refueling tank. In all embodiments, the mass of cryogenic refilled is 866 kg. Depending on the pressure an amount of extra electric power is produced owing to utilizing a low temperature potential of LNG. New values, such as the specific amount of extra energy are introduced. These values allow objective assessment of the potential for extra energy when using the cryogenic products with their subsequent regasification in cryogenic refueling tank taking into consideration the operational constraints and the working fluid flow. Cold energy power plant has been also designed to refuel vehicles with the natural gas. The total amount of generated electric power will be 3725.22 kW • h for 225 min. The action time of cold energy power plant, including the time of methane gasification in cryogenic refueling tank, time of refueling vehicles, and time of electricity generation will be 24 hours. The economic assessment of cold energy power plant has shown that the payback period is 3.4 years.
Development of Mechanical Loading Device for Testing the Zirconium Cladding Under the Pellet-Cladding Interaction Conditions
# 06, June 2014
DOI: 10.7463/0614.0715393
V.I. Solonin, A.S. Sotnikov, I.V. Sergienko
The article presents data on the development of the laboratory complex for determining a deformation capacity (mechanical properties) of the fuel rod claddings under pellet-cladding interaction (PCI) and controlled conditions specified by the following parameters: temperature, strain rate, hydrogen concentration, the concentration of corrosive medium (iodine). The article discusses the testing results of the mechanical loading device layout and the mechanical loading device (MLD) as such when stress is applied to Ø9.1x7.73 mm zirconium cladding from alloy E110 o.ch. at the temperatures of 380°C and 350°C via the plunger force acting on the simulator of fuel pellet made of aluminum oxide.
Structure of Two-Phase Adiabatic Flow in Air Sparging Regime in Vertical Cylindrical Channel with Water
# 06, June 2014
DOI: 10.7463/0614.0713566
V.I. Solonin, V.V. Perevezentsev, N.S. Isakov, V.B. Kuzero
Experimental research of two-phase adiabatic flow in sparging regime in cylindrical vertical channels with different levels of air volume rates was carried out. Vector velocity fields obtained using the optics methods were analyzed to identify a character of the air volumes motion, a bubbles shape, velocities of both phases, a character of the liquid phase motion in the lower part of channel, void fractions. Obtained data describe a structure of two-phase flows in-detail for various flow regimes and can be used as a verification base for math models in modern CFD-codes.
Appendix

Foreign Education

TURKEY: Universities Need 45 000 More Academics
# 06, June 2014
President of the Higher Education Council Professor Gökhan Çetinsaya announced recently the completion of a report examining the state of higher education in Turkey over the past 30 years, which concludes that universities are in need of 45,000 more academics, reports Cihan.Presenting a comprehensive analysis on the past, present and future of Turkish higher education, the report – titled Growth, Quality and Internationalisation: A road map for higher education in Turkey – claims that the low number of academic staff in Turkey compared to the size of the student body poses a serious threat to quality.
JAPAN Panel Eyes Compulsory Education's Start at Age 5
# 06, June 2014
A government advisory panel is considering proposing Japan start compulsory education from five-year-old children, earlier than the current six-year-olds, informed sources said Thursday. The Education Rebuilding Implementation Council is to call on the government to realize free education in stages for five-year-old children, who are currently taught by kindergartens and nurseries.
CANADA: Universities Urged to Develop New Models of PhD Study
# 06, June 2014
The skills taught to graduate students – sorting, summarizing and presenting information, creativity, and independence – are in high demand. But they are more likely to be used in jobs other than teaching. Several panels at this week’s Congress 2014 heard that two-thirds of PhD graduates will not become professors, heading instead to government or industry. If these students are to market their skills successfully to private sector employers, the current generation of professors has to be persuaded there is no shame if their students do not turn out to be profs.Participants said that to encourage that shift, universities must come up with new models of PhD study, from including multimedia components to emphasizing collaboration and experiential learning alongside traditional study.
SOUTH KOREA: Top University Struggles With Big Class Sizes
# 06, June 2014
The number of jam-packed classes at Seoul National University, or SNU, is on the rise despite the Education Ministry’s policy to enhance higher education quality.According to state-run college information website Academy Info, 123 classes at the nation’s top university in the first semester of this year have 100 or more students. It marked a significant increase from 98 classes in the first semester of 2013, and 94 during the same period of 2012.
CHINA: Universities Fall Short in Recruitment of Students
# 06, June 2014
Universities in some provinces in China are failing to meet student recruitment targets, a survey has found. At least seven provinces and one region did not meet their recruitment goals in 2013, according to the College Enrolment Report released last Wednesday by eol.cn, one of the country's largest education portals. Chen Zhiwen, editor-in-chief of http://eol.cn and one of the report's authors, said the cause was a drop in the birth rate.

History of Progress

In Memory of Georg Simon Ohm (1787 – 1854)
# 06, June 2014
V.P. Samokhin, K.V. Mescherinova
A brief overview of the major achievements of Georg Simon Ohm, the eminent German physicist, opened in 1826, the fundamental law of electrical circuits, which bears his name, and gave him a theoretical foundation. In the results of their research ohm speaker was concluded that the timbre of the sound is the result of the harmonic components of the signal, it is formulated in the form which later became known acoustic Ohm's law. Provides information about parents and brothers Ohm, interesting facts of his life and work, including details of study, teaching and research work as an experimental physicist. Achieve the Ohm were marked in 1841 the highest award of the Royal Society of Great Britain - Copley gold medal followed by the election of a member of this society. Ohm was awarded the Order of the Bavarian "For outstanding achievements in the field of science," his bust is in the Memorial of Glory in Munich. Ohm's name is called unit of electrical, University of applied sciences in Nuremberg and a crater on the side of the Moon.
 
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