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scientific edition of Bauman MSTU


Bauman Moscow State Technical University.   El № FS 77 - 48211.   ISSN 1994-0408

# 11, November 2011

Science and Education
77-30569/280962 The development and research of method and optical system for creating multiplex holograms in the systems of archival optical-holographic memory
# 11, November 2011
S.B. Odinokov, N.M. Verenikina, A.S. Kuznecov, V.V. Markin, D.S. Lushnikov, A.Yu. Pavlov, A.B. Solomashenko
Micro-hologram multiplexing method was proposed and researched; it allowed to increase data writing and reading speed. This method was implemented in the developed and tested system. The ability to multiplex holograms, with the usage of multichannel write head, and simultaneous reading of those holograms with the usage of multichannel read head, was shown. The advantages and the perspective of this method and developed optical system usage for creating multiplex holograms in the systems of archival optical-holographic memory are listed below. The first is the elimination of need for mechanical motion of system elements both when multiplexing on the stage of writing and when restoring of multiplex holograms. The second is the absence of crisscross interference in the beams, restored from multiplex holograms. And last, but not least, it is the ability to use relatively thin recording environment for the writing.
77-30569/280337 Approximation of the segment of dynamically controlled system flat movement trajectory with the usage of logarithmic spiral.
# 11, November 2011
A.A. Karpunin, E.M. Voronov
Description of dynamically controlled object flat trajectory with piecewise constant plots of control was obtained with use of logarithmic spiral plot. Examples of the segments of acceleration and deceleration with fixed values of normal and tangent overloads were included in the article. The usage of this approximation method for models moving along the flat trajectories allows to substitute system of differential equations with analytical dependences.  That technique leads to significant reduce in trajectory creation time.
77-30569/252207 Comparative analysis of the integral conversions' efficiency when processing distributed radiolocation signals
# 11, November 2011
S.I. Nefedov
Comparative analysis of integral conversions relatively to the optimal distributed signal processing was presented. The coefficient of integral conversion efficiency was introduced. Fourier transform, wavelet transform and convolution in the system of standard functions were compared when single and group signal processing.
77-30569/241916 Estimation of the mean time of processing data warehouse inquiry by method of creating a primary index for the table of facts in the parallel database system
# 11, November 2011
Yu.A. Grigor'ev
The article gives an expression for mathematical expectation of the execution time of data warehouse inquiry built on the basis of a database parallel system (DPS). The author determines parameters of this expression taking into account the presence  of “bottleneck”. The author provides an expression which makes it possible to estimate the mean execution time of inquiries to the database parallel system with CE cluster architecture. In this expression the number of SMP-units and quantity of AMP-processors in each unit are taken into account. A practical example is analyzed, and conclusions are formulated. In particular, it is noted that if “the bottleneck” (disk) of the system is not overloaded (its load is less than 1), then the mean execution time of data warehouse inquiry in the system with the SMP-units is commensurate with the time of processing this demand in the MPP-system with the same quantity of AMP-processors. This makes it possible to substantially save cash resources during the acquisition of hardware of the parallel database system.
77-30569/264652 Development of the method for calculating the cylindrical joints with a small gap for a thin-walled external member
# 11, November 2011
D.S. Blinov, V.F. Alyoshin
Methods of mechanical machine creating became the foundation of the developing method for calculating a thin-walled external member with all constraints taken in the account. Dimensionless parameters were used in that method to provide the engineering generality. The most important parameter is a radial gap. The final system of equations was obtained in the article; this system can be solved only by computer.
77-30569/250145 Shared center for research and testing of microminiature high-frequency and broadband special electronic equipment assembly and mounting technological processes.
# 11, November 2011
G.P. Slukin, S.I. Nefedov, A.B. Vostorgov, I.E. Jigalenkov, N.M. Zyuz'kin, V.Yu. Shustikov
Technological abilities of shared center for research and testing of microminiature high-frequency and broadband special electronic equipment assembly and mounting technological processes were considered in the article. Working conditions and examples of technological processes of micro-assemblies development and mounting were described. Perspectives for the development of this center and for the entire sphere were shown.
77-30569/252091 Minimal-parametric modelling in radar signal processing
# 11, November 2011
S.I. Nefedov
The author considers a conception of minimal parametric modelling in high-quality radar signal processing. Convolution transform in reference functions system is given as base integral transform of the proposed conception of minimal parametric modeling. Basic requirements for minimal parametric signal model and phono-target situation are discussed.
77-30569/262290 New mechanism of carbon dissolution in the lattice of the austenite while carburizing steel and its properties when the austenite goes through pearlite and martensitic transformation
# 11, November 2011
V.S. Kraposhin
A new model of carbon placement in the lattice of the austenite was proposed; it is based on the equality of diamond's and austenite's lattice periods. Carbon dissolves in austenite as a centered tetrahedron which is a fragment of diamond structure. Vertexes of carbon tetrahedron are placed in the austenite lattice sites, this way the fifth atom of carbon is in the center of carbon tetrahedron, without causing distortion in the austenite lattice. This model was proved with experimental data of nuclear gamma-ray spectroscopy and is consistent with the proposed single model of pearlite and martensitic austenite transformation as multi-doubling of austenite density.
77-30569/262333 Research of the structure and properties of multilayer materials based on aluminum alloys
# 11, November 2011
A.G. Kolesnikov, A.I. Plohih, M.O. Mironova
 It was shown in the article, that multilayer metallic materials could be composed not only using alloys with different crystal structure, but also using isomorphic components. Metallographic research specified that laminar structure with parallel arrangement of layers of equal thickness was formed in multilayer material consisting of aluminum alloys. Significant reducing of viscosity was detected when simultaneous rising of conditional yield point; this is a characteristic of materials with laminar structure.
77-30569/261887 Intelligent systems as a basis of new generation equipment for the control of axle-boxes of railways rolling stock
# 11, November 2011
A.Y. Dolganin, Y.N. Dolganin, D.V. Kreopalov, M.A. Savchenko
The priceples of  pyrometric systems creating were researched in the article. The calibration method for pyrometric units in the thermal control systems was proposed. It was shown that own thermal radiation of constructive elements in optical systems can be suppressed by using an optical system with intermediate image and modulator with reflecting sectors of multilayer interference coatings. Method of suppressing of the solar radiation to low level, saving high temperature resolution relating to the environment, including low temperatures of controlled object was developed
77-30569/262116 Research of the influence of alloying elements’ diffusion mobility on the stability of multilayer metallic materials’ structure
# 11, November 2011
A.I. Plohih, D.V. Vlasova, O.M. Hovova, V.M. Polyanskii
Diffusion of the alloying elements between layers of material is one of the main factors influencing on the forming and saving of laminar structure in multilayer metallic materials. Thermic method, dilatometric method and micro-X-ray analysis were used to find out the influence of cyclic high-temperature heating on diffusion mobility of basic alloying elements in multilayer iron-based materials with various degree of structuring.
77-30569/261314 Method of equipment’s and aerial reconnaissance modes’ system analysis
# 11, November 2011
E.I. Afinogenov, T.M. Volosatova, N.I. Sel'vesyuk, N.V. Chichvarin
This article is based on the results of the development of method and tools for production of the requirements for navigational equipment, information support and system of aerial reconnaissance aircraft (AC) flight, providing the required quality of recorded aerial films. The research of this development process was carried out considering principal (theoretical) restraints of aerial reconnaissance complexes’ abilities and information technologies, solving problems of recording and recognition of aerial reconnaissance data. Aerial photo equipment (APE), APE stabilizing systems for different carriers and methods of defocused and blurred image reconstruction were also considered in this article.
77-30569/248808 Interference pattern analysis of resolution bin in surveillance spatial coherent MIMO radar systems with beamea antennas
# 11, November 2011
M.I. Noniashvili, I.V. Kryuchkov, S.I. Nefedov
           The article considers features of the interference pattern of resolution bin in surveillance spatial coherent MIMO radar system with respect to baseline lengths of the interferometer and the number of radar stations in the interferometer. The authors provide a strategy of surveillance coherent MIMO radar system interference pattern of spatial bin construction.
77-30569/255442 High-voltage pulse modulators
# 11, November 2011
V.I. Kazancev, V.G. Sergeev, S.A. Platonov
 This article deals with high-voltage pulse modulators, used in the supply circuits of powerful generator and amplifier electro-vacuum microwave devices. The advantages of solid-state modulators over electrical ones were shown in the article. Russian and oversea productions of high-voltage modulators were considered. Block diagrams of the anode and grid modulators and electro-vacuum device’s breakdown protection scheme with a security key were included.
77-30569/256187 Experimental research of fluorescent spectrums of natural formations and oil pollution
# 11, November 2011
Yu.V. Fedotov, O.A. Matrosova, M.L. Belov, V.A. Gorodnichev
Article is devoted to experimental research of laser induced fluorescent spectrums of oil pollution on the earth’s surface. It was shown, that fluorescent spectrums of natural formations (earth’s underlying surfaces) and oil pollution had their own features which can be used to control oil pollution on the earth’s surface both right after spillage and at least a day after.
77-30569/256238 Method for determination of the temperature and time stability of magnetic systems with permanent magnets
# 11, November 2011
V.S. Boruta, B.E. Vintaikin
This article is devoted to the method for determination of the temperature and time stability of magnetic parameters in systems with permanent magnets. The method for determination of the temperature coefficient of induction (TCI) and the coefficient of time instability (CTI) was based on compensation induction-continuous measurement method. Device for TCI measurement is an AC voltage generator with permanent magnetic field. Stator is a fixed frame winding, placed in the working gap of magnetic system. Induced in the stator EMF was rectified and compensated by stabilizing voltage. Considered magnetic system (MS) was placed into thermostat. Temperature of one of the stator’s windings was measured. Temperature stability of MS could be inferred by compensated signal.  Device for CTI measurement consists of two autonomous AC voltage generators with permanent magnetic field. One of them is a researched MS; the other one is a stabilized MS. Windings of two stators were opposite. Time stability of MS could be inferred by the dependence of compensated signal on time. The developed method allows to determine temperature and time stability of MSs used in fine mechanics devices, with high accuracy.
77-30569/256111 Methods for micro-optical-electrical-mechanical subsystems modeling
# 11, November 2011
I.A. Kosolapov, L.A. Zinchenko
Modeling of MEM subsystems with different physical nature and methods of transition between them, using formal description language VHDL-AMS were considered in this article, based on micro-optical-electrical-mechanical accelerometer with Fabry-Perot interferometer. Optical, mechanical and control subsystems were modeled during the research, the results were included in the article. It was noticed, that the advantages of VHDL-AMS are its versatility, ability to describe mixed analog-digital systems; it’s also supported in many programming complexes, used for MEM modeling
77-30569/255301 Experimental research of multipath radio-wave propagation’s influence on the accuracy of range measurement on rough terrain
# 11, November 2011
A.A. Filatov, I.V. Kryuchkov, S.I. Nefedov, V.A. Miheev
In this article methods of range measurement between two points of local positioning system. General overview of positioning problem in conditions of multipath was presented. Model of equipment for investigation of diverse radio system positioning accuracy was proposed. Experiment for investigation of positioning accuracy and method for determining the distance using the experimental data were described. The results of experimental estimation of accuracy when measuring the distance between elements for different types of tracks were included in the article.
77-30569/256150 Algorithms and software for comprehensive estimation information system of pupils’ educational outcomes
# 11, November 2011
A.S. Platonova
The purpose and the main conclusions of developed information system were briefly described in this article. The main part of the article contains algorithms and implementations of information system's basic functions, such as diagnosis, processing and analysis of psychological and pedagogical information about pupils’ educatioanls outcomes.
77-30569/255556 Model of aircraft flight at FL
# 11, November 2011
A.M. Rivkin
Today in the modern systems of automative flight control attention is paid to computation of 4D-trajectory for aircrafts based on flight data, it’s wroth mentioning that increasing the reliability of this computation is an urgent problem because the results of this computing are used for information distribution between flight dispatchers and for determining the load of flight space control sectors and other elements of flight space. This article was devoted to one of the main stages of computing 4D-trajectories for aircrafts - flight at FL considering the wind.
77-30569/253036 Development of radar for radio vision of spacecrafts in millimeter-wave band – radar RV MGTU
# 11, November 2011
S.I. Nefedov, G.P. Slukin, I.V. Kryuchkov, D.E. Koroteev, V.Yu. Shustikov
Radar station created in BMSTU (RDE RET) that allows to get the images of low-orbit spacecrafts and working in the millimeter-wave band was considered in this article. Created radar station is an interesting researching tool, allowing to breakthrough in the sphere of creating algorithms and methods for taking radar pictures of aircrafts and their high-accuracy detection; it also provides tools for research of millimeter-wave propagation at the Earth-Space path.   
77-30569/254156 High-accuracy algorithm for wind speed supplement computation for aicraft flight sector
# 11, November 2011
P. Novikov
High-accuracy algorithm for wind speed supplement computation when determining the entire speed of aircraft flight sector was considered. Proposed algorithm used in 4D planning and organizing of aircraft flight along the straight trajectory segment. It provides more precise computation of aircraft arrival time, and also gives a precise estimation of fuel amount needed for the flight.
77-30569/254657 Examples to the teaching method of “Management in technical systems of cutting machines and industrial robots” course
# 11, November 2011
Y. Nikulin
This article is devoted to the teaching method of «Management in technical systems» (MTS) in the sphere of designing and creating of cutting machines and industrial robots and to the development of examples for control system (CS) of numeric control machine tools (NC), these examples were presented in the lectures. Teaching method of MTS course at Cutting machines department was considered; generalized block diagram of executive devices’ follower drives was presented; the most difficult problems for students were considered.
77-30569/254666 Research of methods for compensation of phase incursion in radar with inverse aperture synthesis when monitoring a moving target
# 11, November 2011
V.M. Orlov, V.Yu. Shustikov, Yu.S. Nefedova, S.I. Nefedov
Principles of creating the distance-azimuthal radar pictures of targets in radars with inverse aperture synthesis, based on classic spectral analysis. Algorithm for localizing data processing when monitoring aircraft moving along the straight-line trajectory was developed. The results of distance-azimuthal radar picture simulation based on facet model and point model were presented in the article.
77-30569/253626 Control of the pulse envelope form in the transmitting radar device
# 11, November 2011
I.V. Kryuchkov, A.A. Har'kovskii, S.I. Nefedov
This article is devoted to the method for increasing of radar energy efficiency at the expense of using the pulse envelope with non-rectangle form. Construction schemes of solid-state pulse transmitting radar devices were presented; they provide forming of  pulse envelope with non-rectangle form, keeping high energy efficiency. The aspects of thermal conditions and the problems of output cascade reliability were considered. The analysis of energy saved during the radar operation with different types of radio signals was presented.
77-30569/254289 Mathematical model of multiposition radar system’s channel of distribution
# 11, November 2011
Yu.S. Nefedova, I.V. Kryuchkov, A.A. Karankevich
Development of mathematical model of multiposition radar system's channel of distribution was described in the article. The probing radio-signal propagation, their scattering at different objects, such as targets and clutter and reflection from underlying surface were taken in the account. The first results of multiposition radar system with meter-wave band simulation were included in this article.
77-30569/253870 Maximum possible unit power when designing transmitting module of solid-state ASEA
# 11, November 2011
A.A. Har'kovskii, I.V. Kryuchkov, S.I. Nefedov
Approach to the design of solid-state transmitting devices with high unti power, based on continuous optimization of transmission path’s units in order to achieve the maximum possible mass-dimensional attributes, was considered in this article.Ability to increas pulse power from one semicondactor device was demonstrated. The results of experimental research of very high frequency amplifiers were presented.
77-30569/254634 Control of internal combustion enginr's temperature detector reading
# 11, November 2011
P. Novikov, A.V. Rutkevich
Principles of internal combustion engine's coolant temperature real-time monitoring. Computional system at hardware level was based on a single-board computer “Tion-Pro v2”. The application domain is the internal combustion engine's coolant temperature monitoring. With slight reconfiguration number of system abilities could be increased, for example using additional detectors or control relays.
77-30569/251611 Geodeformational display analysis of vibro-seismic processes in technosphere’s objects
# 11, November 2011
V.V. Poduvalcev, M.S. Hlistunov, J.G. Mogilyuk
The results of gravy-seismic monitoring, microseisms computer simulation, causes of large-span buildings’ differential settlement identification, lack of construction project’s geodynamic stability in real geologic conditions of modern industrial parks and metropolises. Computation of additional extra construction stresses of turbine wheel housing could be carried out as a result of geodeformational displays of vibro-seismic processes. Potential threat to the implementation of risks can be expressed in terms of the residual energy of the nonlinear damping of vibro-seismic wave processes and adequate intensity equivalent of seismic hazard on a scale of Mercalli or Richter.
77-30569/252736 Spectral rules of cosmogeneous evolution of the Earth’s seismic activity global oscillation intensity
# 11, November 2011
M.S. Hlistunov, V.V. Poduvalcev, J.G. Mogilyuk
Basic materials of research works in the sphere of detecting, classification, interpretation and verification of spectral rules of seismic activity global oscillation on the Earth according to the formula of explored and unknown before cosmogeneous evolution of global oscilliation intensity of seismic gravity-dynamic processes.
77-30569/251437 Research of generation and evolution of carrier traps in dielectric films of MIS-structures
# 11, November 2011
D. Andreev, A.A. Stolyarov, A.V. Romanov
Model describing generation and evolution of carrier traps in injection-modified multilayer nanosized dielectric films of MIS-structure in the mode of powerfield tunnel injection of electrons into dielectric with direct current. The parameters of model, which characterize the processes of charge state changing of MIS-structure with thermal film SiO2 passivated with the PSG layer and MIS-structure Si-SiO2 – polycrystalline silicon (Si-SiO2-Si*), in the conditions of controlled powerfield tunnel injection of electrons into dielectric. The comparison of experimental and simulation data was carried out.
77-30569/250245 Frequency analysis of carbon fuel liquid rocket engine working process’ electrophysical characteristics
# 11, November 2011
D.M. Yagodnikov, A.N. Bobrov, A.V. Rudinskii
This article deals with complex experimental research of electrophysical processes in liquid rocket engines. Subject for study of products of combustion flow process’ electrophysical characteristics is a model of liquid rocket engine, using ethanol as a fuel and gaseous oxygen as an oxidizing compound. Dependences of magnetic and electric intensity on LRE mode parameters were obtained. Resulting data could be used for the development of noncontact diagnostic system and disaster facilities of LRE in real time.
77-30569/250937 Special features of dataware for radars with spacecraft tracking system
# 11, November 2011
G.P. Slukin, S.I. Nefedov, A.A. Lagovier, M.I. Noniashvili
Generalized algorithms of data processing in radars with spacecraft tracking system were considered in this article. The stage-by-stage approach to data processing and algorithms for detecting and tracking of targets were considered by the example of radar system with millimeter-wave band, designed to take radar pictures of spacecrafts. The choice of probing signals for considered radar system was determined.
77-30569/250182 Visual models for quality control at electronic industries
# 11, November 2011
A.I. Vlasov, A.M. Ivanov
International standards’ role of providing the quality in the organization of industrial process at electronic industry was considered. Application of visual modeling for presentation and estimation of quality models’ components was described. The implementation of basic directions in the field of quality assurance was analyzed by the example of LG Company.
77-30569/250528 About the possibility of digital regulation in electrostatic suspensions of sensing elements of gyroscopes and accelerometers
# 11, November 2011
S.A. Vasyukov
The article considers questions of creating digital stabilization systems for electrostatic suspensions of spherical vacuum-drive gyroscopes and floating-type pendulous accelerometer with regulation of high-voltage potentials on electrodes according to the PDM principle. The author gives recommendations regarding selection of regulator structures, sample rates and capacity of controllers for devices with hollow and solid rotors are given. As a result of calculations and simulation the author shows a possibility of applying discrete correction in suspensions of floating-type devices and vacuum suspensions of hollow rotors which have major diameters.
77-30569/249741 Studying special features of aerodynamics of curved bodies
# 11, November 2011
I.K. Romanova, V.S. Soloviev
Studying aerodynamics of bodies which received irreversible deformations in the process of motion is an extremely urgent task today. The authors analyze the approaches used in studying flow around elongated bodies at high angles of attack. The authors provide a general formula for a body with constant curvature of direct axis. The authors give primary attention to the description of original experimental studies of flow near a curved body at supersonic speeds. The results of the visualization of flows and drainage studies are given. The authors justify the proposals on modifications of the Newton theory of flow and other theories for creating a method of calculating aerodynamic characteristics of random deformed bodies.
777-30569/249897 Translation algorithm of topology of sub-micron super large scale integration (GSI )
# 11, November 2011
A.E. Averyanikhin, L.A. Zinchenko
The article covers approaches to solving the problem of topology transformation of sub-micron GSI for a dual phototemplate technology. A defined class with many elementary methods is assigned for each topology element. Processing the elements consists in their sequential sorting, analysis of distances between the outlines of geometric primitives to meet the assigned criterion. If the distance between the outlines of geometric primitives does not meet the assigned criterion, separation of the analyzed primitives into two different layers of topology is performed. The authors consider an algorithm of coloring a graph for conducting a topology analysis to study the possibility of transformation for the dual phototemplate technology.
77-30569/249869 Using signal with synthesis spectrum for range profile processing and inverse synthetic aperture
# 11, November 2011
N.A. Solov'ev
 This paper covers usage of open-ended frequency-shift keyed signals. The author provides justification of their use and considers the side-lobes structure of an indeterminacy body. The author describes an algorithm of signal accumulation and reception of range profile. The author proposes simulation of a signal reflected from the target and reception of a radio image on its basis by ISAR.
77-30569/252747 The method of enhancement ISAR image resolution on basis of modeling lengthening coherent radar return burst
# 11, November 2011
S.I. Nefedov
The author proposes a technique for building high resolution ISAR image using prior information about type and geometry of the target based on minimal-parametric simulation. Limits of usage are estimated and results of mathematical simulation are given.
77-30569/248297 Ka-band quick-operating reflective waveguide ferrite phase shifters research
# 11, November 2011
E.V. Komissarova, Yu.S. Rusov, A.A. Budkin, V.M. Krehtunov
The article presents results of a research of waveguide ferrite Faraday type phase shifters of a Ka-band. The phase shifter with magnetic memory, based on a square ferrite core which has no electrically conductive composition on the lateral face is characterized by enhanced performance and low power consumption. The phase shifter can be installed in phased-array antennas with beam scanning ±45˚. The authors performed an analysis and optimization of parameters of the phase shifter with the use of FEM electrodynamic models.
Determination of optimum tolerances in size of planar lever mechanisms
# 11, November 2011
DOI: 10.7463/1111.248778
A.A. Golovin, A.V. Ivanov
The article presents a method of determining optimum tolerances in size of elements of planar lever mechanisms according to assigned deviations of output component. In contrast to the matrix method developed earlier by the authors, the approach presented in this work gives the possibility of determining the global space of admittances, and then directly evaluate admittances for the elements of planar lever mechanisms. A special feature of the proposed method consists in the possibility of random setting of the function type of the mechanism error and determining nonexistent solutions of the problem at an early stage of designing the mechanism. The order of admittances determination is illustrated with an example of positioning four-link lever mechanisms - jointed four-link mechanism and slider-crank mechanism. The authors provide a comparison of the calculation results according to the proposed approach and the previously developed matrix method.
77-30569/249978 Parameter selection for continuous phase modulation with Gaussian filtration for broadband communications
# 11, November 2011
I.V. Kryuchkov, A.I. Senin, S.V. Chernavskii, S.I. Nefedov
 This paper covers the question of parameter selection for continuous phase modulation with Gaussian filtration for obtaining appropriate characteristics in noise immunity and spectral properties. The authors present a method of parameter selection. The results enable to select appropriate parameters of continuous phase modulation.
77-30569/248346 Design of V-shaped wideband radiation source for printed antenna array
# 11, November 2011
V.N. Mitrohin, N.Yu. Fadeeva, V.I. Litun
The authors present results of 3D wideband microstrip antenna design. Dependence of simulated VSWR on the geometrical characteristics is shown. Constructional features and manufacturing method of phased array fragment are described. Results of prototype antenna VSWR measurements are given.
77-30569/247813 Use of integral and differential methods of the diffraction theory for predicting field strength above the Earth surface
# 11, November 2011
V.V. Ahiyarov
In this article the author considers numerical methods for field prediction above the Earth surface, based on the solution of the integral and parabolic equations. The author presents diffraction problem solutions for real profiles. It is shown that the parabolic equation method has high computational efficiency and ensures accuracy of the solution which is comparable with the rigorous method of integral equations.
77-30569/247762 Development and study of a modified Vivaldi aerial as part of a flat wideband X-band antenna array
# 11, November 2011
S.L. Chernyshev, A.R. Vilenskii, S. Syu, S. Lyui, Yu. Lyu
 This paper presents the results of development of radiators for ultrashot impulse wideband X-band printed phased antenna arrays. Ultra-wideband travelling wave slot Vivaldi antenna was studied and adapted for radiation at X-band as an effective wideband radiator with required characteristics. The modification of this aerial is presented.  Matching characteristics and radiation patterns were obtained both for single radiator and for radiator in periodic flat antenna array.
77-30569/246035 Step frequency change signal modelling and processing
# 11, November 2011
V.A. Usachev, N.A. Golov, N.V. Kudryavceva, A.A. Sagdatov
 This article considers the step frequency change signal which is often used for radar detection of foliage covered and subsurface targets. Signal design, processing approaches and ambiguity function calculation are also discussed in this paper. Step frequency radar range resolution is estimated.
77-30569/245994 Technology miniaturisation for special electronics based on three-dimensional layout
# 11, November 2011
V.A. Usachev, N.A. Golov, N.V. Kudryavceva, Yu.D. Sasov
 In this article the authors review physical limitations that determine the level of increasing the density of the layout of electronic equipment in the case of two-dimensional layout. There is a need for a new technology of assembling electronic equipment. The authors present a complex of 3D technologies for miniaturization of electronic devices which was developed in BMSTU and allows to reduce the weight and size parameters of the equipment and significantly improve its reliability a multiple number of times. The authors show the efficiency of creating equipment on a three-dimensional technology for a wide range of products of weapons and military equipment.
77-30569/228671 Early career-guidance of scholars as the first step in academic and teaching personnel training in innovative Russian economic life
# 11, November 2011
D.M. Yagodnikov, T.Yu. Cibizova
This article considers current problems in training high-qualified academic and teaching personnel. It is shown that early career-guidance is the first and one of the most important factors in further professional orientation. The authors show the latest statistical data on academic competition (Olympiad) among scholars “Step in future”, analyze advantages of students’ selection through pre-university training system. It is concluded that the best results and high motivation to professional choice and further training in University is the consequence of non-stop career-guidance workout with scholars, which allows to make a choice appropriate for all participants of educational process and correspondent with the demands of society and state.
77-30569/244189 Variant of creating a device for synchronous generator-field control
# 11, November 2011
A.B. Borzov, A.V. Bumagin, A.V. Gondar, K.P. Likhoedenko, V.B Suchkov
The article covers realization of a device for synchronous generator-field control. It is shown that the proposed device is meant for transient response data optimization in electric generators due to adaptation of the field regulator parameters to the current state of power system. The device is able to adapt the parameters of the operational unit (regulator) to the parameters of electrical power network by means of continuous teaching during the operation.
77-30569/245147 Method of calculation of mass transfer coefficients at drainage of hydrocarbon rocket propellant
# 11, November 2011
S.V. Kobyzev
The author evaluates the possibility of hydrocarbon rocket fuel (UVG) drainage from the water which it contains by means of bubbling it with gaseous nitrogen. The author indicates water concentration in as-received condition of UVG and provides physical UVG parameters, calculates similarity numbers which are necessary for calculating the parameters of bubble motion and convective diffusion of water into a gas bubble for the case of stationary emersion of the bubble. The data cover UVG temperature range from -40 to 30 ° C and diameters of bubbles from 1 to 4 millimeters, which corresponds to the parameters of bubblers used in launch and technical complexes of rocket-space technology. The results of calculating mass transfer coefficient are given.
77-30569/244635 Creating an automatic voltage regulator for synchronous generator
# 11, November 2011
A.B. Borzov, A.V. Bumagin, A.V. Gondar, K.P. Likhoedenko, V.B Suchkov
The authors consider realization of an electric generator control unit for weakening adverse effects of overloads or transient processes. The authors review the work of the regulation characteristic calculator on the basis of using an ultra-fast annealing algorithm. It is shown that the device is capable of solving problems of decreasing the energy of transient processes (which appear during disturbances in power grids) due to the parameter optimization of the field regulator of the synchronous generator according to the variation of primary voltage at the installation stage.
77-30569/251783 Method of increasing radioimage contrast on the basis of minimal-parametric modelling
# 11, November 2011
S.I. Nefedov
The author proposes a method of increasing radioimage contrast on the basis of minimal-parametric modelling. This method allows to increase overall performance of space vehicle imaging radar RLS RV (MGTU). Results of simulation and comparison of basic image building method with the proposed method are given.
77-30569/242870 Uniqueness property of algorithm development when designing multiaspect information systems
# 11, November 2011
Class of multiaspect information systems was defined as class of organized control systems, closely-coupled with data and functions. The problem of decreasing the multiaspect system development cost was set. Standard methods of decomposition and out-of-the-box solutions were recognized ineffective. Aspect approach to designing of information system based on strict formalization of design process was proposed. Uniqueness property of algorithm development was formulated; it allowed to achieve the uniqueness of problem description when outlining it. Requirements that allowed to achieve the uniqueness were specified. Lemma that the uniqueness property of algorithm development was achieved with the fulfillment of listed requirements   was proved.
77-30569/234034 Longevity of block and tackle elevator system
# 11, November 2011
P.V. Vitchuk, D.Yu. Abramov
The article considers reasons of failures of the block and tackle elevator system and factors which influence its longevity. The authors review the procedure of parameter determination of the block and tackle elevator system by analyzing the results of multivariant calculations. The authors give recommendations regarding processing of the data obtained during the calculation. They justify the choice of the contact pressure value as the standard of longevity of the block and tackle elevator system.  The authors examine the contact pressure calculation in the stream which differs from the traditional one by separate examination of the diameters of the rope-guiding pulley and rope, and also of the profile of the stream of the rope-guiding pulley.
77-30569/215138 Management activity in interactive technology
# 11, November 2011
M.F. Menyaev
 The article considers application of web-site for implementation of interactive negative processes occurring in the system of production management. It is shown that the use of interactive technology allows to increase the volume of data processed, and allows to use tools for their operative processing and formation of knowledge, as well as timely go to the administrative activity. A confirmation of the statement that the process of accumulation of the information on the interface of the interactive system is characterized by logistics (logarithmic) function. The conclusion is that interactive technology allows to more effectively manage the practical activity objects in the learning system, allows to realize the spectrum of consulting activities in the process of the execution of the training work.

Machine Building and Engineering Science

77-30569/270715 Phase change computation in aging alloys Ni-Al
# 11, November 2011
T.V. Kurihina, V.N. Simonov
Computation of the phase change sequence during the incubation interval of oversaturated solid solution of Ni-Al alloy breakage      was carried out (93% Ni, 7% Al by weight). Quantity of conversion stages in the process of oversaturated solid solution breakage, atom’s superfluous chemical potential with every metastable phase equilibrium, mass content of precipitated phases, newly formed phases’ chemistry, gradient of Al atoms’ chemical potential between solution and nucleating phases could be determined with formed digram of non-equilibrium phase states.

Constructional Material Processing in Machine Building

77-30569/286150 Hidden heat evolution’s role in the control of process formalization of molten metal crystallization in the process of welding
# 11, November 2011
V.P. Morozov
Oscillations in the process of molten metall crystallization appears when welding as a periodic formation of cristallization isotherms; this is a characteristic of different metals and alloys. Cycling of commercial pure metal crystallization process is caused by temperature oscillations when hidden heat evaluating on the phase boundary. Frequency mechanism of hidden heat evaluation grouped with concentration subcooling mechanism appeared to be significantly difficult including both non-equilibrium cooling conditions and cycling. External thermal factors’ influence on the frequency of heat evaluation when welding pure metals and alloys allowed to increase the capabilities of structure forming. It was found out that thermal influence from external periodic source with the frequency corresponding to the natural frequency of welded seam crystallization created conditions for resonance that led to the increasing of penetration, interval of temperature oscillation and also to the reduction os welded seam’s cast structure. 
77-30569/281952 Structural defect estimation of carbon fibers and polymer composites based on these fibers
# 11, November 2011
Yu.M. Mironov, Yu.V. Hrapovickaya, M.O. Makeev, V.A. Nelyub, A.S. Borodulin, I.V. Chudnov, I.A. Buyanov
 The results of structural survey of carbon fibers and epoxy micro carbon fiber composite were presented in this article. Attempt to determine damage mechanism of micro carbon fiber composite while in long operation was made, based upon the obtained results.

Power Machine Building, Metallurgical Machine Building and Chemical Engineering

77-30569/289750 Automated system for control of the Al form of section manufacturing
# 11, November 2011
A.D. Zhargalova, S.Y. Dudnikov
One of the important tasks of the modern manufacturing is product quality control assurance. This article deals with the quality control assurance of secondary aluminum forms of section and creating of the mathematical model of manufacturing quality control. Block diagram of manufacturing process with artificial neural network using was developed. Proposed model and algorithm became the foundation for developing of automated system for manufacturing quality control assurance. Proposed system tested on real problems presents stability of analysis of parameters of products quality

Transportation, Mining and Construction Machine Building

77-30569/347435 Synthesis of adaptive dynamic continuous system of stabilization of the case of multi-wheeled vehicles
# 11, November 2011
M.M. Jileikin
In our days suspension systems of modern multi-wheeled vehicles (MWV) are facing a wide range of inconsistent requirements: maintenance of high smoothness of a course; maintenance of high indicators of profile passableness; dynamic stabilization of the frame of the MWV during individual external influences; increase of the movement stability. Algorithms of management should be developed during the stage of the development of the MWV suspension control system, which provide a principle of separate management, i.e. performance of each of the algorithms of management should be carried out in a certain range of system phase coordinates. Author develops adaptive algorithm of dynamic stabilization of the frame of the MWV, which allows to provide a high indicators of stability of the frame under external influences connected with turning, braking, coming over an individual roughnesses. Thus not only stability and traffic safety of the MWV is increased, but also working conditions of the driver is improved. The technique of synthesis of the adaptive dynamic continuous law of stabilization of the case of the MWV was described in this article, and also the results of the simulation confirming high efficiency of developed algorithm of management were included.

Mathematics and Mathematical Modeling

77-30569/255087 Stabilization of non-minimal phase affine systems with linearization of the part of varibles
# 11, November 2011
S.B. Tkachev
Position stabilization problem for non-linear dynamic system with scalar control was considered based on differnetial-geometrical approach. Basic theoretical fundamentals about controlled dynamic system transformation into quasi-cannonical form, and controlled dynamic system with an output transformation into normal form. Attention was paid to the case when zero dynamics of the system wasn’t asymptotically stable, that is non-linear system wasn’t minimal-phase. Usage of the method of virtual outputs for stabilization of these systems isn’t always possible because of the difficulties raised from the search of virtual controls with required properties. It was shown that for building of virtual outputs with the required properties linearization of the subsystem defining zero dynamics could be used. For the dynamic system describing inverted pendulum placed on the truck the state feedback control synthesis problem was solved with the method of virtual outputs and linearization of the part of variables; this solution allowed to stabilize both upper equilibrium position of pendulum and given position of the truck.  
77-30569/251409 Quality analysis of interacting cell populations’ functional model
# 11, November 2011
M.S. Vinogradova
Mathematical model of selective replication dynamics of clone forming population of abnormal cells in the culture of human stem cells in the laboratory (in vitro), considering the influence of density factor on cells multiplication. Model is a system of second order ordinary differential equations with polynomial special right member. All stationary points of this model with non-negative coordiantes with at least one zero coordinate were found; stability analysis for these points was carried out with different values of model parameters. It was shown that system couldn’t have more than two points with both positive coordinates. The results of numerical simulation were included in the article.
77-30569/251251 Feinmann’s formulas for class of parabolic equations, corresponding to tau-quantization of quadratic Hamiltonian
# 11, November 2011
Ya.A. Butko, A.V. Duryagin
Class of parabolic second order equations, produced by different quantization types of one classical system’s quadratic Hamiltonian, was considered. Solution of Cauchy-Dirichlet problem for considered class of equations on the interval was represented as Hamiltonian Feynman’s formula, that is as a limit of finite-multiplicity elementary integrals when multiplicity approached infinity. New formula for direct computation of the solution to formulated problem and computer simulation of corresponding dynamics was obtained in this work. Connection between differential operators corresponding to different quantization types of quadratic Hamiltonian and connection of obtained Hamiltonian Feynman’s formula with Feynman’s path integrals in phase space were also discussed in the article.
77-30569/251232 About atoral relative copresentations
# 11, November 2011
O.V. Kulikova
Bogley W.A and Pride S.J. have researched aspherical relative copresentations. Relative copresentation were considered in atoral aspect in this article. Sufficient condition for atoricity was obtained, just like Bogley and Pride had obtained sufficient condition for asphericity. Properties of commutation elements in the group, represented as oriented atoral relative copresentation were investigated. Some properties of conjugate and commutation elements in the group represented as oriented relative copresentation were obtained. There were no connected reduced circular images over this copresentation .
77-30569/246173 Wave interaction operator and its application
# 11, November 2011
V.V. Feoktistov, O.O. Myakinnik
Running waves with matrix coefficients were introduced. Permutation properties were defined for these coefficients. Wave intaeraction operator was built; its derivatives were found. Operator was applied to the solution of Cauchy-Kovalevskaya’s first order system. This system was defined as a sequence of numeric matrices.
77-30569/246219 Presentation of Cauchy-Neyman problem’s solution for parabolic equation on half-line with Langrangian Feinmann’s formula
# 11, November 2011
A.V. Morozov, Ya.A. Butko
Cauchy-Neyman problem for parabolic equation on half-line with variable coefficients depending on coordinate was considered.Solution of this problem was presented as a limit of elementary multiple integrals, containing coefficients of equation and initial conditions, when multiple approached infinity. Such formulas were called “Feynman’s formulas”. Similar presentations of evolution equations’ solutions could be used for direct computation and computer simulation of researched dynamics. Among other things, limits of finite-multiplicity integrals in Feynman’s formulas agreed with some functional integrals in some probability measures on set of trajectories in the areas where equations were considered. By this means, Feynman’s formulas allowed to approximate functional integrals and, consequently, transition probabilities (which usually weren’t expressed in terms of elementary functions) of corresponding random processes. Method for obtaining Feynman’s formulas for evolution equations has been proposed in the works of Smolyanov O. G. and his co-authors in 1999 – 2003 years. This method was based on the application of Chernoff’s theorem and allowed to obtain Feynman’s and Feynman-Katz’s formulas for extensive class of evolution equations on different geometric structures.
77-30569/246206 M-estimations of 2D-autoregressive coefficients with not necessarily convex regret function
# 11, November 2011
V.B. Goryainov, E.R. Goryainova
Asymptotic normality of M-estimations with not necessarily convex regret function for 2D-autoregression of (1,1) order was recognized. Stability of these estimations when filling observation data with rough upwards excursions was recognized with computer simulation.
77-30569/246235 About computation of slot jet's parameters; slot jet is blown from sublimated plate into razing supersonic flow
# 11, November 2011
N.I. Sidnyaev
Numeric computation of gas-dynamic parameters when flow blown from the crack in the plate interacted with main supersonic gas flow moving parallel to the plate with sublimated surface was considered in this article. Numeric simulation of gas-dynamic parameters, structure and main dependences of supersonic flow past a jet, blown from the crack in he plate on superficial mass transfer was carried out. Influence of plate sublimation on gas flow parameters was numeric investigated.
77-30569/245858 Modification of input-output implementation algorithm
# 11, November 2011
A.V. Evseev
Implementation of input-output mapping as equations of state was considered. Methods of differential geometry were used in the research. Early developed implementation algorithm included the test of first distribution integrals existence. Reliable test of existence based on Frobenius condition in differential forms language was proposed. To this end, module decomposition was built, containing differentials of equations’ variables. Method of codistribution basis building was created based on this decomposition. The results of this work could be used for the test of distribution integratability in the automatic control problems. It’s recommended to use symbolic mathematic software when using the results of this work.

Aeronautical and Rocket Space Engineering

77-30569/291153 Non-ideal initiation and propagation of detonation in the equipment of ammunition as a factor of stability characteristics of the damaging effect reducing
# 11, November 2011
A.V. Kozyrev, V.S. Soloviev
The article deals with the effects of non-ideal initiation and propagation of detonation in the equipment of weapons and ammunition, the basics of principles of operation of which is directed detonation-wave transmission of the explosion energy of charges of condensed explosives. The main causes of these effects and their influence on the functioning of explosive devices are analyzed. The data on the degree of influence of this factor on the stability characteristics of the damaging effect of modern high-performance ammunition was offered for cumulative and shell forming types, designed to destroy armored vehicles at long range.
77-30569/270775 Mathematical model of stalky elements’ oscillation in expanding big truss construction considering non-linear stiffness properties of hinge joints
# 11, November 2011
V.E. Meshkovskii
Mathematical model of stalky elements’ oscillation in expanding big truss construction considering non-linear stiffness properties of hinge joints in the gravity field was considered. Frequency of the oscillation with strokes dependence on oscillation amplitude for different values of mass and stiffness properties of stalky elements was obtained. Developed mathematical model could be used when designing and researching of own dynamic characteristics of similar constructions.

Informatics, Computer Science and Management

77-30569/292510 Concept and properties of descrete process of system functioning
# 11, November 2011
V.M. Chernen'kii
Article is devoted to analysis of process representation form as a description of changing the state of any system in time. The description of process was included; every component such as parametric set of a system, state space, temporary set, diagram and phase space were described. Concepts of subspace, subprocess, projection of a point in space onto a subspace were introduced. Operations of convolution, deconvolution, projection and union were defined over these processes. These operations were analyzed; their properties and realization conditions were defined.
77-30569/281808 Algorithm of computer-aided generation of teaching selection for neural network hand-written characters recognition
# 11, November 2011
V.A. Galkin, S.N. Chernuha
Algorithm of computer-aided generation of teaching selection for neural network with error backpropagation was considered. Teaching and hand-written character recognition occurred through the generation of finite set of different images of the character. The deviation of trace parameters of the character didn’t exceed 15% (values of angles of significant segments with coordinate axis) from the reference hand-written character. It was shown that neural network learned faster from auto-generated selection than from selection generated by a man. Algorithm was implemented in Microsoft C# language.
77-30569/281085 Conception of lecturer’s website development
# 11, November 2011
S.A. Bol'shakov
This article deals with the main principles of lecturer's website development. Special features of lecturer’s work and problems of lecturer’s website usage were marked. Information sources for this kind of websites and for its visitors were given. Main functions of generalized lecturer’s website and an example of its development were considered.  The advantages of such websites and special features of their operation were listed.
77-30569/292475 Object-oriented description of subject domain when modeling elimination of oil spills
# 11, November 2011
V.M. Chernen'kii, P.G. Ercev
Articel is devoted to the problem of environment description when eliminating oil spills. It was suggested to create an object-oriented description of subject domain in order to further research with simulation methods. To create the concept of object, the spatial decomposition was produced. After forming 2D mesh in the xy plane and the decomposition of z axes, it became possible to use the concept of cell, layer and section. A cell is characterized with a set of components within its limits; these components are organized as a tree. Components are characterized with parameters; basic operations such as decomposition, synthesis, transformation, internal conversion and operations of component movement are defined over these parameters. It was proposed to used an algorithmic model for the description of conversion processes.
77-30569/292147 Algorithm of simulation process' generating
# 11, November 2011
V.M. Chernen'kii
Rules and algorithms of simulation process generating, based on the description of discrete system's functioning as a set of connected series-parallel processes, represented as algorithmic models are presented in this article. Fundamentals of algorithmic process model are briefly described. Rules providing correct generating of a class of simultaneous events (CSE) were introduced. Content and algorithms of basic components of generating algorithm such as a set of event subprograms, an algorithm of CSE selection, a program “Calendar”, a program which checks the conditions, a structure of controlling tables. Algorithms of two modeling program were included. They are scanning and linear types of program. Their performance was analyzed.
77-30569/291975 The forming of simulation process, based on algorithmic description of information system's functioning
# 11, November 2011
V.M. Chernen'kii
This article deals with the basic principles of simulation process' organizing, based on the description of discrete system's functioning as a set of connected series-parallel processes, represented as algorithmic models. Fundamentals of algorithmic description are summarized. Influence of the connection of processes and operators on the execution order of elementary operators in simulation process is analyzed. The concept of active temporary set was introduced, several of its properties were proved. Also author introduced the concept of action as the fact that an elementary operator has worked out. The actions were classified by their activity in time. The concept of class of simultaneous events at the forming of simulation process appeared to be very useful and important. Properties of class and rules of its creating were proved.

Economic Sciences

Организация производства (по отраслям)

77-30569/275692 About individualization tools, used by business entities
# 11, November 2011
S. Strahova
Article deals with individualization tools of legal bodies, goods, works, favors and facilities. Company names, trademarks, service marks, geographical indications, trade names belongs to individualization tools.

Education Sciences

77-30569/273990 InfoInformational competence as main component of vocational competence
# 11, November 2011
A.S. Karpechenko
This article is devoted to the competence approach in vocational education in modern informational society. Basic categories of competence approach and relations between them were defined in this article, the issue of description of competence in the system of methodological analysis was mentioned; approaches to the concept of “key competences” are described. Multilevel informational competence was considered as one of the key competences. As a result of the comparative analysis of common cultural and vocational competences of the manager the relation between informational and vocational competences was shown.

Foreign Education

French Companies Get to Grips with Social Networks
# 11, November 2011
A group of France’s leading companies have come together to support a research chair in social media at Telecom Ecole de Management, the grande école situated outside Paris. The aim of the research will be to give businesses a better understanding of how social networks operate and how they can be integrated into corporate strategy. Christine Balagué, e-marketing professor at Telecom Business School, will head the research, which has a budget of almost €1m over three years. Research will be focused on four areas, she says: metrics and models; understanding the changes in the way people use social networks; new tools and community management; and creating new marketing study methods.
CHINA: Government Encourages Independent Entrance Tests
# 11, November 2011
The Ministry of Education promised to promote multiple measures to spot talented young people and send them for higher education.It has encouraged top universities to use an independent exam, besides the national one, to test the students hoping to enter universities in 2012."Encouraging universities to select students based on an independent criteria is an important supplement to the country's system of college entrance exams," said a notice released by the ministry.
UK: University of Wales to Cease Validating Degrees from Independent Suppliers from 2012
# 11, November 2011
The decision by the University of Wales to cease validating degrees from independent suppliers from 2012 will force several high-profile MBA suppliers to look for other validation agencies if they are to continue to offer their degrees. Institutions affected will include the London School of Business and Finance (LSBF), with its “Facebook MBA”, and the Lorange Institute of Business in Zurich, set up by Peter Lorange, the former supremo at IMD. Online MBA suppliers such as RDI in the UK and Robert Kennedy College in Switzerland will also be affected.
MALAYSIA: UNESCO to Help Review Education Policy
# 11, November 2011
Malaysia and UNESCO last week signed a memorandum of understanding to review the country's education policy at all levels, from pre-school to higher education, reports the official agency Bernama.Education Ministry Secretary-General Datuk Dr Rosli Mohamed said the review was being initiated to ensure that all Malaysians could realise their potential, as well as preparing a future worforce with the required skill set in line with various government transformation programmes to achieve a developed and high-income economy by 2020.
PAKISTAN: Higher Education Participation Hits 7,8%
# 11, November 2011
Higher Education Commission Chairman Javaid R Laghari has said that in 2008 the participate rate in higher education in Pakistan was 2.5%, but after commission initiatives it has reached 7.8% and the government has a vision to increase the figure to 15% by 2020, reports The International News.In an address to Punjab University Vice-chancellor Mujahid Bamran and other staff, Laghari said that the greatest challenge was to reach out to the people in remote areas and financially support students who could not afford higher education.
College Enrollment in Brazil Doubles in Past 9 Years
# 11, November 2011
The number of students enrolled in colleges and universities in Brazil doubled from 2001 to 2010, reaching 6.379 million, the Education Ministry said Monday.Citing a college census, the ministry said that college enrollment was up 7.1 percent in 2010 from 2009.Education Minister Fernando Haddad said the figures indicated the growing access to college education in Brazil, adding that the government will manage to raise the number to 10 million in 2020.The census also indicated an advancement of distance education.
UK: University of Warwick One Step closer to New York Campus
# 11, November 2011
The University of Warwick has joined a global consortium led by New York University (NYU) to set up a new applied sciences and engineering campus in the US city.The bid, which is currently being considered by New York Mayor Michael Bloomberg, is the latest attempt by the region to strengthen its links with the US, which is seen as key to the long-term health of the region’s economy.If approved, the ambitious bid will see Warwick become the first UK university to set up a campus in the US, as well as working alongside big-name firms including IBM, Cisco and Siemens.
UK: Value of Degrees to be Revealed for First Time
# 11, November 2011
Официальные опросы работников предназначены для того, чтобы выяснить, в каких университетах они обучались, таким образом выявляя наиболее и наименее успешные учебные заведения, дающие образование дипломированным специалистам, начинающим строить свою карьеру после окончания вуза.Информация будет жизненно важна для студентов, которые вынуждены платить £27 000  (US$43 000) за трехлетнее обучение с получением ученой степени и затем впоследствии много лет выплачивать денежный долг, когда они начинают работу.
CHINA: Top Scholars Share Open Courses Online
# 11, November 2011
China now has its version of Harvard open courses. Twenty courses provided by 18 top Chinese universities went online last Wednesday, China's latest attempt to disseminate teaching resources within the nation and promote Chinese culture globally, writes Chen Jia for China Daily.These courses feature 20 subjects or lectures given by speakers and professors from several universities, including Zhejiang University, Nankai University and Wuhan University. Most of the courses will focus on traditional Chinese culture, according to the Ministry of Education. They are available through the websites of NetEase and China Network Television, as well as icourses.edu.cn, for free.
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