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Coordinate relationship of the medical robot – manipulator
Engineering Education # 12, December 2012
DOI: 10.7463/0113.0520630
During surgical operations with the use of a robot–manipulator, control actions are managed by force effects in the area of the surgical operation. The constructional design of the robot is chosen according to the technological requirements for implementation of specific movements. It turns out that when a force is applied to the tool, displacement of the force application point can be non-collinear to the force vector. If interaction between a surgical instrument and the operation object can be reduced to a concentrated force, it is necessary to choose a beneficial robot configuration to avoid lateral offset. In this configuration the force vector must be aimed to the proper direction of the robot compliance matrix in the force application point. The proposed calculation method helps to construct a working configuration of the robot with respect to minimization of possible spurious derivation of the instrument from the requested trajectory.
Problems of development of stereotaxic guidance systems designed to control surgical instruments, illustrated by brain biopsy
Engineering Education # 12, December 2012
DOI: 10.7463/0113.0486770
A description of carrying out brain biopsy was examined. It is emphasized that one of the major problems is to position the instrument precisely and to maintain a safe trajectory while carrying out the operation. A disadvantage of traditional stereotaxic systems, apart from constructive disadvantages (long preparation and repeated operations have to be carried out in case of multi-target procedures), is that it doesn’t have the ability to observe the effectiveness of surgical manipulation in the target object in real time and, therefore, to reveal ongoing intracranial complications. Modern technologies which use robotic-manipulators allow to increase accuracy, speed and safety in high-precision operations simultaneously. The need for accuracy in positioning the instruments and automated support system are discussed in detail.
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